The European Legal Order: Beyond Inter-State Retaliation

William Phelan

Research output: Non-textual formWeb publication/site


The power and position of the European Court of Justice today is often attributed to its landmark rulings establishing the primacy and direct effect of EU law, writes William Phelan. He argues, however, that its ban on inter-state retaliation between Member States was equally important, empowering national courts to enforce EU law and creating trade stability for states, businesses and individuals.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEdinburgh
PublisherEuropean Futures
EditionArticle No 34
Media of outputBlog post
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2015


  • Direct effect
  • European Court of Justice
  • Inter-State Retaliation
  • Primacy
  • Trade


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