The extinction of the dinosaurs

Stephen L. Brusatte*, Richard J. Butler, Paul M. Barrett, Matthew T. Carrano, David C. Evans, Graeme T. Lloyd, Philip D. Mannion, Mark A. Norell, Daniel J. Peppe, Paul Upchurch, Thomas E. Williamson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

Abstract

Non-avian dinosaurs went extinct 66 million years ago, geologically coincident with the impact of a large bolide (comet or asteroid) during an interval of massive volcanic eruptions and changes in temperature and sea level. There has long been fervent debate about how these events affected dinosaurs. We review a wealth of new data accumulated over the past two decades, provide updated and novel analyses of long-term dinosaur diversity trends during the latest Cretaceous, and discuss an emerging consensus on the extinction's tempo and causes. Little support exists for a global, long-term decline across non-avian dinosaur diversity prior to their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. However, restructuring of latest Cretaceous dinosaur faunas in North America led to reduced diversity of large-bodied herbivores, perhaps making communities more susceptible to cascading extinctions. The abruptness of the dinosaur extinction suggests a key role for the bolide impact, although the coarseness of the fossil record makes testing the effects of Deccan volcanism difficult.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-642
Number of pages15
JournalBiological reviews
Volume90
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2015

Keywords

  • dinosaurs
  • end-Cretaceous
  • mass extinction
  • Cretaceous-Paleogene
  • extinctions
  • macroevolution
  • Chicxulub impact
  • Deccan Traps
  • global change
  • palaeontology
  • CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY
  • SAN-JUAN BASIN
  • HELL CREEK FORMATION
  • MASS EXTINCTION
  • PALEOGENE BOUNDARY
  • NEW-MEXICO
  • DECCAN VOLCANISM
  • NORTH-DAKOTA
  • GLOBAL CLIMATE
  • IMPACT EJECTA

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