Projects per year
The European Union's ambition to achieve near-total decarbonization by 2050 suggests a large role for carbon capture and storage (CCS), requiring the transport (mostly by pipeline) of CO2 from source facilities to appropriate sites for geological storage. Here, a network modeling approach is used to test the scale, structure, and estimated costs of an integrated European CO2 transport network for different amounts of CCS deployment. Models are optimized with the sole objective of creating the least cost pipeline network that joins all sources to sufficient storage for a 25-year period of operation, and assume no restrictions on trans-boundary transport of CO2, or due to topographical constraints. Results show that extensive CO2 pipeline networks are required to deliver the CCS contribution to decarbonization. Sufficient storage is available but is distributed such that even for low levels of CCS deployment, both offshore storage and trans-boundary transport of CO2 are needed. Scenarios are run to test pipeline infrastructure requirements should onshore CO2 storage not be permitted, giving an estimated increase in CO2 transport infrastructure cost of 10–30% (€3–7 billion). Scenarios examining the effect of removing the more speculative storage potential in the Baltic, close to central and eastern European CO2 source clusters, reinforce the need to experimentally validate theoretical storage capacity estimates especially in the Baltic and North Sea.
- CO2 pipeline, CCS, energy network