The future for PETTLEP: a modern perspective on an effective and established tool

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Over the past 15 years there has been much research into the PETTLEP model of motor imagery, originally designed to improve the quality and impact of imagery interventions on sport performance. This article reviews the most recent trends within this research. Despite a suggested change of underpinning mechanisms involved, there is much support for the positive impact of the model when applied within the sporting context and with engaged participants. The model also appears to have provided impact in fields other than sport, such as medicine and music. Therefore we suggest that it has largely met its desired aims. However, not all research has optimised the model's guidelines, with a distinct failure to account for personal relevance when designing imagery scripts or selecting tasks for use in studies. Other recent and pertinent findings relate to the mediating role of expectancy and beneficial augmentation through movement observation. Future research should, however, seek exploitation and clarification towards contemporary issues in motor control, namely; automaticity, the relative merits of internal and external foci and subconscious goal priming. Finally, we endorse the application of imagery, as a conscious intervention, even for execution of unconscious, fast-actions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-16
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Psychology
Early online date23 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017


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