The impact of COVID-19 on smoking patterns in Pakistan: findings from a longitudinal survey of smokers

Kamran Siddiqi, Faraz Siddiqui, Amina Khan, Saeed Ansaari, Mona Kanaan, Mariam Khokhar, Ziauddin Islam, Masuma Pervin Mishu, Linda Bauld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction
We investigated the influence of COVID-19 on smoking patterns in Pakistan.
Methods
In a longitudinal survey, we asked cigarette smokers in Pakistan about their smoking behaviours before and since COVID-19. Smokers were recruited before COVID-19 using two-stage random probability sampling. Since COVID-19, three subsequent waves were conducted over the telephone, asking additional questions on social determinants, mental health and wellbeing. Based on the first two waves, we estimated the proportion of smokers who stopped, decreased, maintained, or increased smoking. We also explored any factors associated with the change in smoking patterns. In those who stopped smoking soon after COVID-19, we estimated the proportion relapsed in subsequent waves. We estimated all proportions based on complete-case analysis.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Early online date8 Oct 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Oct 2020

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