Dysregulation of cellular pH is frequent in solid tumours and provides potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The acidic microenvironment within a tumour can promote migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells through a variety of mechanisms. Pathways associated with the control of intracellular pH that are under consideration for intervention include carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4), the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase), and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1). This review will describe progress in the development of inhibitors to these targets.
- Tumour pH