Abstract / Description of output
Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) are an innovation that reduces droplet-solid contact line pinning and interfacial friction. Recently, it has been shown that a liquid analogue of Young's law can be deduced for the apparent contact angle of a sessile droplet on SLIPS despite there never being contact by the droplet with the underlying solid. Since contact angles on solids are used to characterize solid-liquid interfacial interactions and the wetting of a solid by a liquid, it is our hypothesis that liquid-liquid interactions and the wetting of a liquid surface by a liquid can be characterized by apparent contact angles on SLIPS. Here, we first present a theory for deducing liquid-liquid interfacial tensions from apparent contact angles. This theory is valid irrespective of whether or not a film of the infusing liquid cloaks the droplet-vapor interface. We show experimentally that liquid-liquid interfacial tensions deduced from apparent contact angles of droplets on SLIPS are in excellent agreement with values from the traditional pendant drop technique. We then consider whether the Zisman method for characterizing the wettability of a solid surface can be applied to liquid surfaces created using SLIPS. We report apparent contact angles for a homologous series of alkanes on Krytox-infused SLIPS and for water-IPA mixtures on both the Krytox-infused SLIPS and a silicone oil-infused SLIPS. The alkanes on the Krytox-infused SLIPS follow a linear relationship in the liquid form of the Zisman plot provided that the effective droplet-vapor interfacial tension is used. All three systems follow a linear relationship on a modified Zisman plot. We interpret these results using the concept of the critical surface tension (CST) for the wettability of a solid surface introduced by Zisman. In our liquid surface case, the obtained critical surface tensions were found to be lower than the infusing liquid-vapor surface tensions.