The Mass-Luminosity Relation in the L/T Transition: Individual Dynamical Masses for the New J-Band Flux Reversal Binary SDSSJ105213.51+442255.7AB

Trent J. Dupuy, Michael C. Liu, S. K. Leggett, Michael J. Ireland, Kuenley Chiu, David A. Golimowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We have discovered that SDSS J105213.51+442255.7 (T0.5±1.0) is a binary in Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging, displaying a large J-to-K-band flux reversal (ΔJ = −0.45 ± 0.09mag, ΔK = 0.52 ± 0.05mag). We determine a total dynamical mass from Keck orbital monitoring (88 ± 5MJup) and a mass ratio by measuring the photocenter orbit from CFHT/WIRCam absolute astrometry (MB/MA = 0.78 ± 0.07). Combining these provides the first individual dynamical masses for any field L or T dwarfs, 49 ± 3MJup for the L6.5 ± 1.5 primary and 39 ± 3MJup for the T1.5 ± 1.0 secondary. Such a low mass ratio for a nearly equal luminosity binary implies a shallow mass–luminosity relation over the L/T transition (Δlog Lbol/ΔlogM = 0.6+0.6−0.8). This
provides the first observational support that cloud dispersal plays a significant role in the luminosity evolution of substellar objects. Fully cloudy models fail our coevality test for this binary, giving ages for the two components that disagree by 0.2 dex (2.0σ). In contrast, our observed masses and luminosities can be reproduced at a single age by ”hybrid” evolutionary tracks where a smooth change from a cloudy to cloudless photosphere around 1300 K causes slowing of luminosity evolution. Remarkably, such models also match our observed JHK flux ratios and colors well. Overall, it seems that the distinguishing features SDSS J1052+4422AB, like a J-band flux reversal and highamplitude
variability, are normal for a field L/T binary caught during the process of cloud dispersal, given that the age (1.11+0.17−0.20 Gyr) and surface gravity (log g = 5.0–5.2) of SDSS J1052+4422AB are typical for field ultracool dwarfs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume805
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2015

Keywords

  • astro-ph.SR
  • astro-ph.EP

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