The neglected zoonoses-the case for integrated control and advocacy

S. C. Welburn*, I. Beange, M. J. Ducrotoy, A. L. Okello

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

Abstract

The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries, but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This neglect is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. Increasing awareness about the causes of NZDs and how they can be prevented could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Addressing NZDs by targeting the animal reservoir can deliver a double benefit, as enhanced animal health means a reduced risk of infection for humans, as well as improved livelihoods through increased animal productivity. Advocacy for NZD control is increasing, but with it comes a growing awareness that NZD control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time. Moreover, despite the promise of cheap, effective vaccines or other control tools, these endemic diseases will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. NZD intervention costs can seem high when compared with the public health benefits alone, but these costs are easily outweighed when a full cross-sector analysis is carried out and monetary/non-monetary benefits particularly regarding the livestock sector are taken into account. Public private partnerships have recently provided advocacy for human disease control, and could prove equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses through harnessing social impact investments. Evidence of the disease burdens imposed on communities by the NZDs and demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of integrated control can strengthen the case for a One Health approach to endemic zoonotic disease control. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-443
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2015

Keywords

  • Anthrax
  • bovine TB
  • brucellosis
  • burden of disease
  • cysticercosis
  • DALY
  • echinococcosis
  • human African trypanosomiasis
  • neglected zoonotic diseases
  • One Health
  • poverty
  • rabies
  • under-reporting
  • TRYPANOSOMA-BRUCEI-RHODESIENSE
  • RESTRICTED INSECTICIDE APPLICATION
  • DELTAMETHRIN-IMPREGNATED COLLARS
  • SLEEPING-SICKNESS
  • TROPICAL DISEASES
  • AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS
  • HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS
  • ONE HEALTH
  • CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS
  • MYCOBACTERIUM-BOVIS

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