Here we define a new morphospecies of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides eoconglobatus n. sp., identified from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expedition 359 samples from drift deposits of the Maldives, Inner Sea. Through biostratigraphic analysis, we infer it may be the direct ancestor of Globigerinoides conglobatus evolving from Globigerinoides obliquus in the Late Miocene (Subzone M13a). Globigerinoides eoconglobatus n. sp. can be distinguished from G. conglobatus through both its morphological traits and stable isotopic signature (δ18O and δ13C) in pre-adult and adult specimens. The most defining characteristic being its aperture height (AH). A variance in adult stable isotopic signals shows a possible difference in life strategies, possibly related to symbionts (presence/absence or concentration) and/or depth habitat. This work also tentatively shows G. eoconglobatus n. sp. and G. conglobatus abundances are linked to glacial–interglacial stages. Its low abundances and similarities to its descendent Globigerinoides conglobatus has likely accounted for it being unreported, until present, in both modern and fossil studies.