Individual workplace performance is a crucial construct in Work Psychology. However, understanding of its conceptualization remains limited, particularly regarding predictor-criterion linkages. This study examines to what extent operational validities differ when criteria are measured as overall job performance compared to specific dimensions as predicted by ability and personality measures respectively. Building on Bartram’s (2005) work, systematic review methodology is used to select studies for meta-analytic examination. We find validities for both traditional predictor types to be enhanced substantially when performance is assessed specifically rather than generically. Findings indicate that assessment decisions can be facilitated through a thorough mapping and subsequent use of predictor measures using specific performance criteria. We discuss further implications, referring particularly to the development and operationalization of even more finely grained performance conceptualizations.