The spectrum of nonmotor symptoms in early Parkinson disease

Tien K Khoo, Alison J Yarnall, Gordon W Duncan, Shirley Coleman, John T O'Brien, David J Brooks, Roger A Barker, David J Burn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

OBJECTIVE: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with established Parkinson disease (PD) but their frequency in early PD has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to determine the frequency of NMS in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed PD.

METHODS: A total of 159 patients with early PD and 99 healthy controls participated in this study. NMS were screened for using the nonmotor symptom questionnaire. Other assessments included measures of motor disability (Movement Disorders Society-revised unified Parkinson's disease rating scale [MDS-UPDRS]), disease severity (Hoehn & Yahr staging), depression (geriatric depression scale), and global cognitive function (Mini-mental state examination and Montreal cognitive assessment).

RESULTS: The PD group reported a significantly greater number of NMS compared with controls (8.4 [4.3] vs. 2.8 [2.6]). In the PD group, the most commonly experienced NMS were excessive saliva, forgetfulness, urinary urgency, hyposmia, and constipation. Patients with higher MDS-UPDRS III scores and those with the postural instability gait subtype experienced a greater number of NMS.

CONCLUSION: NMS are common in early PD and reflect the multisystem nature of the disorder. Even in the earliest stages of PD, NMS may be detrimental to patients' functional status and sense of well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-81
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2013

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Aged
  • Antiparkinson Agents
  • Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
  • Cognition
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Gait Disorders, Neurologic
  • Humans
  • Levodopa
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders
  • Middle Aged
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


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