Wei Hao Wang, Kotaro Kohno, Bunyo Hatsukade, Hideki Umehata, Itziar Aretxaga, David Hughes, Karina I. Caputi, James S. Dunlop, Soh Ikarashi, Daisuke Iono, Rob J. Ivison, Minju Lee, Ryu Makiya, Yuichi Matsuda, Kentaro Motohara, Kouichiro Nakanish, Kouji Ohta, Ken Ichi Tadaki, Yoichi Tamura, Tadayuki KodamaWiphu Rujopakarn, Grant W. Wilson, Yuki Yamaguchi, Min S. Yun, Jean Coupon, Bau Ching Hsieh, Sébastien Foucaud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field using 1.6 and 3.6 μm selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ∼0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to LIR > 1011 L Ȯ and a star formation rate (SFR)sim; 15 M Ȯ of yr-1 at z = 2. We find that galaxies that are brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to also be brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than m3 μm =23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z ∼2.5 Hα emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking, we recover a 1.1 mm surface brightness of up to 20.3 ±1.2 Jy deg-2, comparable to the extragalactic background light measured by COBE. Based on the fractions of optically faint sources in our and previous ALMA studies and the COBE measurements, we find that approximately half of the cosmic star formation may be obscured by dust and missed by deep optical surveys. Much deeper and wider ALMA imaging is therefore needed to better constrain the obscured cosmic star formation history.

Original languageEnglish
Article number195
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2016


  • cosmic background radiation
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • submillimeter: galaxies


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