Sperm are crucial for successful fertility. In order to do this, they must be able to swim a large distance to meet the egg in the female reproductive tract and fertilise it. Once released from the testes, sperm may appear to be fully developed, but this is not the case. Several important modifications are required in order for them to swim and fertilise an egg. These modifications are carried out by sending sperm small packages from other cells which contain messages and cargo. We discuss the release of these small packages along different parts of the male reproductive tract and how they change the way sperm behaves and functions. This article reviews the literature and known functions of these packages called extracellular vesicles, which are released by the male reproductive tract and modify sperm, transforming their 13function, before they are ejaculated.
- extracellular vesicles
- male reproductive tract