The Type I Restriction Enzymes as Barriers to Horizontal Gene Transfer: Determination of the DNA Target Sequences Recognised by Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complexes 133/ST771 and 398

Kai Chen, Augoustinos S Stephanou, Gareth A Roberts, John H White, Laurie P Cooper, Patrick J Houston, Jodi A Lindsay, David T F Dryden

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The Type I DNA restriction-modification (RM) systems of Staphylococcus aureus are known to act as a significant barrier to horizontal gene transfer between S. aureus strains belonging to different clonal complexes. The livestock-associated clonal complexes CC133/771 and CC398 contain Type I RM systems not found in human MRSA strains as yet but at some point transfer will occur. When this does take place, horizontal gene transfer of resistance will happen more easily between these strains. The reservoir of antibiotic resistance, virulence and host-adaptation genes present in livestock-associated MRSA will then potentially contribute to the development of newly evolving MRSA clones. The target sites recognised by the Type I RM systems of CC133/771 and CC398 were identified as CAG(N)5RTGA and ACC(N)5RTGA, respectively. Assuming that these enzymes recognise the methylation state of adenine, the underlined A and T bases indicate the unique positions of methylation. Target methylation points for enzymes from CC1 were also identified. The methylation points for CC1-1 are CCAY(N)5TTAA and those for CC1-2 are CCAY(N)6 TGT with the underline indicating the adenine methylation site thus clearing up the ambiguity noted previously (Roberts et al. 2013, Nucleic Acids Res 41:7472-7484) for the half sites containing two adenine bases.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiophysics of Infection
Pages81-97
Number of pages17
Volume915
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-32189-9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2016

Keywords

  • Adenine
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Cattle
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type I Site-Specific
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Gene Transfer, Horizontal
  • Genotype
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Livestock
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Milk
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phenotype
  • Staphylococcal Infections
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Virulence

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