The Windkessel model revisited: A qualitative analysis of the circulatory system

Athanasios Tsanas, John Y. Goulermas*, Vassiliki Vartela, Dimitrios Tsiapras, Georgios Theodorakis, Antony C. Fisher, Petros Sfirakis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we derive a comprehensive computational model to estimate the arterial pressure and the cardiac output of humans, by refining and adapting the well-established equations of the Windkessel theory. The model inputs are based on patient specific factors such as age, sex, smoking and fitness habits as well as the use of specific drugs. The model's outputs correlate very strongly with physiological observations, with a low error of similar to 5% for the arterial pressure. (C) 2008 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-588
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Engineering and Physics
Issue number5
Early online date6 Jan 2009
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Arterial pressure
  • Circulatory system
  • Mathematical model
  • Windkessel theory


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