Thymus and parathyroid organogenesis

Kathy O'Neill*, Craig Scott Nowell, Ellen Richie, Nancy Ruth Manley, Catherine Clare Blackburn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The thymus is the principal site of T cell development and therefore is of central importance within the immune system: congenital athymia results in profound immunodeficiency, while perturbed thymic function can lead to autoimmunity. Although highly active in early life, the thymus undergoes premature involution, such that de novo T cell development diminishes significantly with age. This has implications for immune function in the aging population, and in clinical procedures such as bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, where thymic function is required for T cell reconstitution and/or tolerance induction. Interest therefore exists in enhancing immune reconstitution through regenerative or cell therapies for boosting thymus activity in vivo, or providing customized in vitro generated T cell repertoires for adoptive transfer. The success of such strategies is likely to depend on a detailed knowledge of the mechanisms regulating thymus development and homeostasis. Here, we review current understanding of cellular and molecular regulation of thymus organogenesis, focusing on the epithelial component of the thymic stroma which provides many of the specialist functions required to mediate T cell differentiation and T cell repertoire selection.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Tissue Engineering
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages869-897
Number of pages29
Edition4th ed
ISBN (Print)9780123983589
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2013

Keywords

  • endoderm
  • foxn1
  • organogenesis
  • parathyroid
  • patterning
  • progenitor cell
  • stem cell
  • thymic epithelium
  • thymus

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