Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of HIV-1 protease inhibitor complexes correlates with inhibitory activity

A.J. Kungl, A. Billich, A. Schilk, H. Gstach, M. Auer, N.V. Visser, A. Van Hoek, A.J.W.G. Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The tryptophan time-resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy of the HIV-1 protease dimer is shown to be a quick and efficient method for the conformational characterization of protease inhibitor complexes. Four fluorescence lifetimes were needed to adequately describe the fluorescence decay of the two tryptophan residues, W6 and W42, per protease monomer. As a result of the wavelength dependence of the respective amplitudes, the 2.06 ns and the 4.46 ns decay constants were suggested to be the intrinsic fluorescence lifetimes of the more solvent-exposed W6 and the less exposed W42 residues, respectively. Analysis of the fluorescence anisotropy decay yielded a short correlation time of 250 ps corresponding to local chromophore motions, and a long correlation time of 12.96 ns resulting from overall rotation of the protease enzyme. Fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times changed when inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease were added. The effects of 11 different inhibitors including statine-derived, hydroxyethylamine-derived, and 2 symmetrical inhibitors on the protease fluorescence dynamics were investigated. Inhibitor binding is shown to induce an increase of the mean fluorescence lifetime τ(mean), an increase of the short rotational correlation time φ, as well as a decrease of the long rotational correlation time φ. The mean rotational correlation time φ(mean) was identified as the global dynamic parameter for a given molecular complex, which correlates with the inhibitor dissociation constant K(i), and therefore with the activity of the inhibitor.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2778-2786
Number of pages9
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 1998

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