Timing Variation-aware Scheduling and Resource Binding in High-level Synthesis

Kartikey Mittal, Arpit Joshi, Madhu Mutyam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Due to technological scaling, process variations have increased significantly, resulting in large variations in the delay of the functional units. Hence, the worst-case approach is becoming increasingly pessimistic in meeting a certain performance yield. The problem therefore is to increase the performance as much as possible while maintaining the desired yield.

In this work, we introduce an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation for scheduling and resource binding in high-level synthesis (HLS) which tries to mitigate the effect of timing variations. In the presence of delay variations of resources, as chained resources can give a better latency and performance yield trade-off, instead of considering them independently, we consider external chaining of resources, that is, two or more resources are connected by external wiring, and exploit operation chaining. Without violating the yield constraints, the proposed ILP formulation chains two consecutive operations and binds these chained operations to chained resources for minimizing the overall latency of the schedule. Our ILP formulation also makes sure that two consecutive operations can be chained over multiple clock cycles so that it becomes possible to access the data in the middle of the chained operations at the start of the clock steps over which the operations are chained. By solving our ILP formulation using ILOG CPLEX, we show that our mechanism achieves lesser latency in most cases, compared to the no-chaining case. Significant performance improvement is achieved even for the 100% yield case, which has never been demonstrated in any published work, to the best of our knowledge.
Original languageEnglish
Article number40
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalTransactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2011


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