Tissue- and Liquid-Based Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine

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Abstract

Worldwide, prostate cancer (PC) is the 2nd most frequently diagnosed male cancer and the 5th most common cause of all cancer-related deaths. Suspicion of PC in a patient is largely based upon clinical signs and the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Although PSA levels have been criticised for a lack of specificity, leading to PC over-diagnosis, it is still the most commonly used biomarker in PC management. Unfortunately, PC is extremely heterogeneous, and it can be dif-ficult to stratify patients whose tumours are unlikely to progress from those that are aggressive and require treatment intensification. Although PC-specific biomarker research has previously focused on disease diagnosis, there is an unmet clinical need for novel prognostic, predictive and treatment response biomarkers that can be used to provide a precision medicine approach to PC management. In particular, the identification of biomarkers at the time of screening/diagnosis that can provide an indication of disease aggressiveness is perhaps the greatest current unmet clinical need in PC management. Largely through advances in genomic and proteomic techniques, ex-citing pre-clinical and clinical research is continuing to identify potential tissue, blood and urine-based PC-specific biomarkers that may in the future supplement or replace current stand-ard practices. In this review, we describe how PC-specific biomarker research is progressing, in-cluding the evolution of PSA-based tests and those novel assays that have gained clinical ap-proval. We also describe alternative diagnostic biomarkers to PSA, in addition to biomarkers that can predict PC aggressiveness and biomarkers that can predict response to certain therapies. We believe that novel biomarker research has the potential to make significant improvements to the clinical management of this disease in the near future.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of personalized medicine
Early online date15 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jul 2021

Keywords

  • prostate cancer
  • precision medicine
  • tissue-based biomarkers
  • liquid-based biomarkers

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