Tolvaptan in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Vicente E Torres, Arlene B Chapman, Olivier Devuyst, Ron T Gansevoort, Jared J Grantham, Eiji Higashihara, Ronald D Perrone, Holly B Krasa, John Ouyang, Frank S Czerwiec, TEMPO 3:4 Trial Investigators, A Neil Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is often associated with pain, hypertension, and kidney failure. Preclinical studies indicated that vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonists inhibit cyst growth and slow the decline of kidney function.

METHODS: In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-year trial, we randomly assigned 1445 patients, 18 to 50 years of age, who had ADPKD with a total kidney volume of 750 ml or more and an estimated creatinine clearance of 60 ml per minute or more, in a 2:1 ratio to receive tolvaptan, a V(2)-receptor antagonist, at the highest of three twice-daily dose regimens that the patient found tolerable, or placebo. The primary outcome was the annual rate of change in the total kidney volume. Sequential secondary end points included a composite of time to clinical progression (defined as worsening kidney function, kidney pain, hypertension, and albuminuria) and rate of kidney-function decline.

RESULTS: Over a 3-year period, the increase in total kidney volume in the tolvaptan group was 2.8% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.1), versus 5.5% per year in the placebo group (95% CI, 5.1 to 6.0; P<0.001). The composite end point favored tolvaptan over placebo (44 vs. 50 events per 100 follow-up-years, P=0.01), with lower rates of worsening kidney function (2 vs. 5 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P<0.001) and kidney pain (5 vs. 7 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P=0.007). Tolvaptan was associated with a slower decline in kidney function (reciprocal of the serum creatinine level, -2.61 [mg per milliliter](-1) per year vs. -3.81 [mg per milliliter](-1) per year; P<0.001). There were fewer ADPKD-related adverse events in the tolvaptan group but more events related to aquaresis (excretion of electrolyte-free water) and hepatic adverse events unrelated to ADPKD, contributing to a higher discontinuation rate (23%, vs. 14% in the placebo group).

CONCLUSIONS: Tolvaptan, as compared with placebo, slowed the increase in total kidney volume and the decline in kidney function over a 3-year period in patients with ADPKD but was associated with a higher discontinuation rate, owing to adverse events. (Funded by Otsuka Pharmaceuticals and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization; TEMPO 3:4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428948.).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2407-18
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume367
Issue number25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2012

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
  • Benzazepines
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Size
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant
  • Sodium
  • Young Adult

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