Towards a framework for developing students' fraction proficiency

Tsung-Lung Tsai, H-C Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The importance of the knowledge of fractions in mathematical learning, coupled with the difficulties students have with them, has prompted researchers to focus on this particular area of mathematics. The term ‘fraction proficiency' used in this article refers to a person's conceptual comprehension, procedural skills and the ability to approach daily situations involving fractions. In the area of fractions, there has been a call for more research to study how, and where, efforts should be focused in order to integrate the various aspects of fraction knowledge for students, and even for teachers, to help them develop proficiency in fractions. Thus, the article presents a theoretical synthesis of the specialized literature in the learning and teaching of fractions, with the aim of proposing a framework for developing students' fraction proficiency. The frameworks presented in the article may shed light upon the implications for the design of fraction instruction, which should focus on developing a multi-faceted knowledge of fractions, rather than simply isolating one facet from the others.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-255
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology
Issue number2
Early online date3 Oct 2016
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2017


  • fractions
  • framework for fraction proficiency
  • mathematics
  • multi-faceted knowledge of fractions


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