Towards a global One Health index: a potential assessment tool for One Health performance

Xiao‑Xi Zhang, Jing‑Shu Liu, Le‑Fei Han, Shang Xia, Shi‑Zhu Li, Odel Y. Li, Kokouvi Kassegne, Min Li, Kun Yin, Qin‑Qin Hu, Le‑Shan Xiu, Yong‑Zhang Zhu, Liang‑Yu Huang, Xiang-Cheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Han‑Qing Zhao, Jing‑Xian Yin, Tian‑Ge Jiang, Qin Li, Si‑Wei Fei Si‑Yu Gu, Fu‑Min Chen, Nan Zhou, Zi‑Le Cheng, Yi Xie, Hui‑Min Li, Jin Chen, Zhao‑Yu Guo, Jia‑Xin Feng, Lin Ai, Jing‑Bo Xue, Qian Ye, Liz Grant, Jun‑Xia Song, Geoff Simm, Jürg Utzinger, Xiao-Kui Guo, Xiao‑Nong Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

BACKGROUND: A One Health approach has been increasingly mainstreamed by the international community, as it provides for holistic thinking in recognizing the close links and inter-dependence of the health of humans, animals and the environment. However, the dearth of real-world evidence has hampered application of a One Health approach in shaping policies and practice. This study proposes the development of a potential evaluation tool for One Health performance, in order to contribute to the scientific measurement of One Health approach and the identification of gaps where One Health capacity building is most urgently needed.

METHODS: We describe five steps towards a global One Health index (GOHI), including (i) framework formulation; (ii) indicator selection; (iii) database building; (iv) weight determination; and (v) GOHI scores calculation. A cell-like framework for GOHI is proposed, which comprises an external drivers index (EDI), an intrinsic drivers index (IDI) and a core drivers index (CDI). We construct the indicator scheme for GOHI based on this framework after multiple rounds of panel discussions with our expert advisory committee. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is adopted to determine the weights for each of the indicators.

RESULTS: The weighted indicator scheme of GOHI comprises three first-level indicators, 13 second-level indicators, and 57 third-level indicators. According to the pilot analysis based on the data from more than 200 countries/territories the GOHI scores overall are far from ideal (the highest score of 65.0 out of a maximum score of 100), and we found considerable variations among different countries/territories (31.8-65.0). The results from the pilot analysis are consistent with the results from a literature review, which suggests that a GOHI as a potential tool for the assessment of One Health performance might be feasible.

CONCLUSIONS: GOHI-subject to rigorous validation-would represent the world's first evaluation tool that constructs the conceptual framework from a holistic perspective of One Health. Future application of GOHI might promote a common understanding of a strong One Health approach and provide reference for promoting effective measures to strengthen One Health capacity building. With further adaptations under various scenarios, GOHI, along with its technical protocols and databases, will be updated regularly to address current technical limitations, and capture new knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInfectious diseases of poverty
Issue number1
Early online date22 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Global One Health Index (GoHi)
  • Cell-like Framework
  • Global Performance Assessment


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