Transforming growth factor betas in mammalian embryogenesis

R J Akhurst, D R FitzPatrick, D Gatherer, S A Lehnert, F A Millan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Type beta transforming growth factors (TGF beta s) are members of a large superfamily of related proteins, each of which plays a pivotal role in embryonic processes. The TGF beta s per se are at least five in number, though only three isoforms have been identified in mammals. Here we will review the evidence, taken from in vitro studies on bioactivity and histochemical localization of RNAs and encoded proteins in vivo, that TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 are involved in several mammalian developmental processes, including control of growth, differentiation, tissue inductions and morphogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-68
Number of pages16
JournalProgress in growth factor research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1990


  • Animals
  • Blastocyst
  • Bone Development
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Epithelium
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta

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