BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are scarce data on transient ischemic attack incidence in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to measure transient ischemic attack incidence and the distribution of the ABCD2 risk score in Joinville, Brazil. METHODS: In 2009 to 2010, using a multiple overlapping sources, we ascertained all first ever probable and definite transient ischemic attacks. RESULTS: We recorded 74 definite and probable transient ischemic attacks. The crude incidence was 15 (12-18) per 100 000 population. Age adjusted to European population the incidence was 28 (22-35). One fourth was in the higher risk of stroke by the ABCD2 scale. CONCLUSIONS: The transient ischemic attack incidence in Joinville, Brazil, is lower than other well-designed studies. New studies could clarify whether the measured rates were due to underascertainment or reflect a truly low incidence.