Variceal bleeding is a common complication of cirrhosis and has a high in-patient mortality (30-50%). Rebleeding is a major cause of death and occurs in 35% of patients at 6 weeks after the initial bleeding episode and 75% at 1 year. Therefore, strategies that improve survival by preventing rebleeding in the early period are crucial to improve long-term survival. This review concentrates on the evidence for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the prevention of rebleeding. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in comparison with endoscopic and pharmacological therapies is clearly superior at reducing the rate of rebleeding in those patients who had an oesophageal variceal haemorrhage. It, however, does not improve mortality and is associated with a greater risk of encephalopathy and is more costly than endoscopic procedures. It is therefore generally used when endoscopic therapy has failed but may be useful in patients who would tolerate a rebleed poorly such as Child's C patients. Randomized-controlled trials are required to evaluate the role of polytetrafluoroethylene shunts in the prevention of rebleeding as their improved patency and suggested reduced incidence of encephalopathy make them a very attractive potential treatment for rebleeding.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2006|
- Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt