Transmission of programming effects across generations

Amanda J Drake, Jonathan R Seckl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to an adverse environment in early life is associated with a substantially increased risk of later disease; a phenomenon termed 'early life programming'. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be limited to the first, directly exposed generation but may also be transmissible to subsequent generations through non-genomic mechanisms. There are a number of mechanisms which may underpin the intergenerational transmission of the programmed phenotype, including persistence of the abnormal environment across generations, programmed effects on maternal physiology and the transmission of epigenetic information through the germline. In this review we discuss the evidence for these mechanisms in human and animal studies and the potential importance of this field for child health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-78
Number of pages13
JournalPediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Transmission of programming effects across generations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this