Transparency in ecology and evolution: real problems, real solutions

Jarrod Hadfield, Timothy H Parker, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Julia Koricheva, Fiona Fidler, Yung En Chee, Clint Kelly, Jessica Gurevitch, Shinichi Nakagawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To make progress scientists need to know what other researchers have found and how they found it. Unfortunately, transparency is often insufficient across much of ecology and evolution. Researchers often fail to report results and methods with detail sufficient to permit interpretation and meta-analysis, and many results go entirely unreported. Further, these unreported results are often a biased subset. Thus the conclusions we can draw from the published literature are themselves often biased and sometimes may be entirely incorrect. Fortunately there is a movement across empirical disciplines, and now within ecology and evolution, to shape editorial policies to better promote transparency. This can be done by either requiring more disclosure by scientists or by developing incentives to encourage disclosure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-719
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in Ecology & Evolution
Issue number9
Early online date25 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • confirmation bias
  • inflated effect size
  • p-hacking
  • pre-registration
  • replication
  • selective reporting


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