Trellis Coded Spatial Modulation

Raed Mesleh, Marco Di Renzo, Harald Haas, Peter M. Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Trellis coded modulation (TCM) is a well known scheme that reduces power requirements without any bandwidth expansion. In TCM, only certain sequences of successive constellation points are allowed (mapping by set partitioning). The novel idea in this paper is to apply the TCM concept to the antenna constellation points of spatial modulation (SM). The aim is to enhance SM performance in correlated channel conditions. SM considers the multiple transmit antennas as additional constellation points and maps a first part of a block of information bits to the transmit antenna indices. Therefore, spatial multiplexing gains are retained and spectral efficiency is boosted. The second part of the block of information bits is mapped to a complex symbol using conventional digital modulation schemes. At any particular time instant, only one antenna is active. The receiver estimates the transmitted symbol and the active antenna index and uses the two estimates to retrieve the original block of data bits. In this paper, TCM partitions the entire set of transmit antennas into sub-sets such that the spacing between antennas within a particular sub-set is maximized. The scheme is called trellis coded spatial modulation (TCSM). Tight analytical performance bounds over correlated fading channels are proposed in this paper. In addition, the performance and complexity of TCSM is compared to the performance of SM, coded V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time) applying near optimum sphere decoder algorithm, and Alamouti scheme combined with TCM. Also, the performance of all schemes with turbo coded modulation is presented. It is shown that under the same spectral efficiency, TCSM exhibits significant performance enhancements in the presence of realistic channel conditions such as Rician fading and spatial correlation (SC). In addition, the complexity of the proposed scheme is shown to be 80s% less than the V-BLAST complexity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2349-2361
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2010


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  • Spatial Modulation

    Haas, H.



    Project: Research

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