AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to examine the change in the management of hypertension in patients with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe, between 1989-1990 and 1997-1999.
METHODS: Seven-year changes in hypertension treatment and control (defined as blood pressure <130/85 mmHg) were examined in a large sample of Type I diabetic patients recruited from 26 centres involved in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Hypertension was defined as a systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure greater than 140 and/or 90 mmHg respectively, and/or use of blood pressure lowering drugs.
RESULTS: Of 1866 Type I diabetic patients, 412 had hypertension at baseline and 631 at follow-up. A greater proportion of hypertensive patients were treated at follow-up (69% vs 40%, p<0.0001), which persisted after adjustment for age or centre. Of those who were treated, a modest increase in the proportion of those controlled for hypertension was found (41% vs 32%, p=0.048), which disappeared after adjustment for age. Among hypertensive patients with albuminuria, the proportions treated also increased, from 35% to 76% ( p<0.0001) in microalbuminuric and 64% to 95% ( p<0.0001) in macroalbuminuric patients. Control of hypertension in albuminuric patients did not change significantly and was below 50%. The use of more than one anti-hypertensive drug increased over a 7-year period, from 19% to 33% ( p<0.0001), and a marked increase was shown in the proportion of those taking an ACE inhibitor (from 57% to 82%, p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The management of hypertension in Type I diabetic patients across Europe has improved over a 7-year follow-up period. Optimal levels of blood pressure treatment and optimal levels of control have not yet been achieved.
- Age of Onset
- Antihypertensive Agents
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
- Diabetic Angiopathies
- Middle Aged
- Sex Characteristics