Two patients, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)confirmed relatively selective hippocampal damage, showed distinct patterns of performance on tests of recall, item recognition, and associative recognition. Patient AC showed a mean bilateral volume reduction of the hippocampus of 28\%, but displayed no memory deficit. Both recall and recognition memory were unimpaired. In contrast, patient PR, who showed a mean bilateral hippocampal volume reduction of 59\%, was more consistently impaired on recall than recognition tests, although his recognition scores were highly variable. Patients AC and PR illustrate how variable the memory deficit following seemingly selective hippocampal damage can be in humans. They highlight the need for more sophisticated imaging in future studies if the human hippocampus' role in memory is to be fully identified.