Composite materials have been extensively used in different fields due to their excellent properties, among which carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the representative. Especially in high-precision fields, such as aerospace, CFRP has become the main structural material for some core components instead of metal. The particularity of such materials and their components in terms of structure, material properties, and required detection conditions puts forward more stringent and targeted detection requirements for detection technology. Ultrasonic testing technology as one of the important means of composite defect detection, which is derived from advanced nondestructive testing (NDT), has also been a rapid development. The propagation behavior and variation of ultrasonic waves in CFRP composites can reveal defects and damages in CFRP composites. Moreover, by constructing reasonable defect identification technology and detection technology, not only the qualitative and quantitative positioning analysis of defects and damages in CFRP composites can be realized but also the automatic, visual and intelligent NDT, and evaluation of CFRP composites can be realized. This paper mainly reviews the innovative nondestructive ultrasonic testing technology for CFRP composites and briefly introduces the research progress and application of this technology in CFRP defect detection. Finally, advanced nondestructive ultrasonic testing technology is summarized, and the problems and development direction of this kind of testing technology are put forward.