Modern portable ultrasound machines provide the veterinary clinician with an inexpensive and non-invasive method to further examine sheep on farm which should take no more than 5 min with the results available immediately. Unlike radiography, ultrasonography presents no special health and safety procedures or restrictions. Fibrinous pleurisy, abscesses involving the pleurae and superficial lung, bronchopneumonia and the distribution of lung pathology caused by ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma can be accurately outlined during ultrasonographic examination of the chest. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination can readily identify distended bladder and uroperitoneum. Advanced hydronephrosis caused by obstructive urolithiasis is identified by the increased renal pelvis and thinned cortex. Unless caused by large numbers of migrating immature liver flukes, large accumulations of inflammatory exudate in the abdomen is uncommon in sheep. Ultrasonographic examination of palpable scrotal abnormalities can provide much useful information particularly in the diagnosis of epididymitis and testicular atrophy. Accurate diagnosis of foetal number has greatly improved the nutritional management of late gestation ewes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.