Ultrasound approach to the canine distal tibia and trochlear ridges of the talus

Tiziana Liuti, Jimmy H. Saunders, Ingrid Gielen, Lieve De Rycke, Frank Coopman, Henri van Bree

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what extent the distal tibia and the trochlear ridges of the talus can be examined with ultrasound (US) in the dog and to establish a protocol for an optimal US examination of these ridges. Six hind limbs of deceased adult mixed-breed dogs were used. In two limbs, needles were placed using US guidance on the trochlea of the talus, just dorsal to and plantar to the distal tibia: one with the tarsal joint in extension and one with the joint in flexion. Then mediolateral (ML) radiographs of both joints were made with the needle in place to determine the percentage of the trochlear ridge of the talus that can be seen using US imaging. An US examination of the tarsal joint was performed on the four other limbs using microconvex (8 MHz) and linear (12 MHz) transducers (Logiq 7) and compound imaging. A three-step protocol was performed including a dorsal approach with the limb extended and the linear transducer (step I), a plantar approach with the limb flexed and the linear transducer (step II), and a plantar approach with the limb flexed and the microconvex transducer (step III). After the US examination, the four limbs were frozen and sectioned, two in a transverse and two in a sagittal plane. Bony structures on the US images were matched with the corresponding anatomic sections. The distal tibia and both trochlear ridges of the talus were easily recognized on the US images using the proposed protocol. When combining the dorsal and plantar approaches, it was possible to visualize up to 75% of the trochlear ridges of the talus in the dog.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-367
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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