Tilapia parvovirus (TiPV) is an emerging virus reportedly associated with disease and mortality in farmed tilapia. Although previous descriptions of histopathological changes are available, the lesions reported in these are not pathognomonic. Here, we report Cowdry type A inclusion bodies (CAIB) in the pancreas as a diagnostic histopathological feature found in adult Nile tilapia naturally infected with TiPV. This type of inclusion body has been well-known as a histopathological landmark for the diagnosis of other parvoviral infections in shrimp and terrestrial species. Interestingly, this lesion could be exclusively observed in pancreatic acinar cells, both in the hepatopancreas and pancreatic tissue along the intestine. In situ hybridization (ISH) using a TiPV-specific probe revealed the intranuclear presence of TiPV DNA in multiple tissues, including the liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, gills, and the membrane of oocytes in the ovary. These findings suggest that although TiPV can replicate in several tissue types, CAIB manifest exclusively in pancreatic tissues. In addition to TiPV, most diseased fish were co-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae, and presented with multifocal granulomas secondary to this bacterial infection. Partial genome amplification of TiPV was successful and revealed high nucleotide identity (> 99%) to previously reported isolates. In summary, this study highlights the usefulness of pancreatic tissue as a prime target for histopathological diagnosis of TiPV in diseased Nile tilapia. This pattern may be critical when determining the presence of TiPV infection in new geographic areas, where ancillary testing may not be available. TiPV pathogenesis in this landmark organ warrants further investigation.
|Journal||Journal of Fish Diseases|
|Early online date||30 May 2022|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2022|
- Cowdry type A
- tilapia parvovirus
- pathognomonic lesion