Variant 4: Coexistence of voluntary and mandatory frameworks at the company level – carbon disclosure project, EU ETS and French legal requirements

Romain Morel, Ian Cochran

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Some of the earliest greenhouse gas monitoring and reporting has been done by companies and corporations – whether public or private. These companies voluntarily piloted initial quantification and reporting at the corporate level to assess the contribution of their activities to climate change. In the 2000s, with the implementation of emission trading schemes and carbon taxes, the focus shifted to site-level, without necessarily an aggregation at corporate level. To date, little to no full, mandatory, MRV systems have been put into place for corporate reporting – particularly in terms of verification. However, the coexistence of multiple mandatory and voluntary frameworks that companies participate in has implications for the efficiency of the quantification conducted as well as the use of the information in the entities’ internal “climate governance.” This chapter first briefly presents three of the main reporting frameworks to which multiple French companies participate in or are subject to. France is a particularly interesting example as it is among the few countries – with the United Kingdom – to have made GHG monitoring and reporting mandatory at the corporate level. The second half of this chapter analyzes the impacts of this coexistence of frameworks on efficiencies and internal governance as well as the implications for a growing type of users of emissions performance data: investors. French entities may be subject to up to four major mandatory or voluntary GHG emissions monitoring and reporting frameworks In addition to the EU ETS (described in Chapter 5) which covers more than 1,300 French installations, French companies today participate in multiple GHG emission reporting systems. One of the earliest systems is the voluntary CDP Sustainability, formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project. In addition, GHG measurement and reporting has been included in statutory sustainable-development reporting requirements (including the Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility and the mandatory development of Climate Action Plans).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAccounting for Carbon
Subtitle of host publicationMonitoring, Reporting and Verifying Emissions in the Climate Economy
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9781316162262
ISBN (Print)9781107098480
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


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