Verification of cardiac tissue electrophysiology simulators using an N-version benchmark

Steven A Niederer, Eric Kerfoot, Alan P Benson, Miguel O Bernabeu, Olivier Bernus, Chris Bradley, Elizabeth M Cherry, Richard Clayton, Flavio H Fenton, Alan Garny, Elvio Heidenreich, Sander Land, Mary Maleckar, Pras Pathmanathan, Gernot Plank, José F Rodríguez, Ishani Roy, Frank B Sachse, Gunnar Seemann, Ola SkavhaugNic P Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ongoing developments in cardiac modelling have resulted, in particular, in the development of advanced and increasingly complex computational frameworks for simulating cardiac tissue electrophysiology. The goal of these simulations is often to represent the detailed physiology and pathologies of the heart using codes that exploit the computational potential of high-performance computing architectures. These developments have rapidly progressed the simulation capacity of cardiac virtual physiological human style models; however, they have also made it increasingly challenging to verify that a given code provides a faithful representation of the purported governing equations and corresponding solution techniques. This study provides the first cardiac tissue electrophysiology simulation benchmark to allow these codes to be verified. The benchmark was successfully evaluated on 11 simulation platforms to generate a consensus gold-standard converged solution. The benchmark definition in combination with the gold-standard solution can now be used to verify new simulation codes and numerical methods in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4331-51
Number of pages21
JournalPhilosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Issue number1954
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2011


  • Algorithms
  • Computational Biology
  • Computer Simulation
  • Computers
  • Electrophysiology
  • Heart
  • Humans
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Normal Distribution
  • Software
  • Time Factors

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