Verification of Quantum Computation: An Overview of Existing Approaches

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve not only problems believed to be intractable for classical computers, but also problems for which verifying the solution is also considered intractable. This raises the question of how one can check whether quantum computers are indeed producing correct results. This task, known as quantum verification, has been highlighted as a significant challenge on the road to scalable quantum computing technology. We review the most significant approaches to quantum verification and compare them in terms of structure, complexity and required resources. We also comment on the use of cryptographic techniques which, for many of the presented protocols, has proven extremely useful in performing verification. Finally, we discuss issues related to fault tolerance, experimental implementations and the outlook for future protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715–808
Number of pages94
JournalTheory of Computing Systems
Issue number4
Early online date6 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2019

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