## Abstract

Practical, unbiased stereological methods are described to estimate lung volume and external surface area, and total volume and surface area of relatively large and anisotropic structures (bronchi and arteries) inside the lung.

The volume of each of five lung strata was estimated first by fluid displacement and then by computed tomography (CT) using Cavalieri's method; the reliability of CT was assessed through a calibration procedure, and image thresholding criteria for an accurate volume estimation using CT were established. The parallel, perfectly registered CT section images were also used to estimate the external surface area of each stratum by the spatial grid method.

Unbiased estimation of internal surface areas in lung is a long-standing problem: since the structures are large and essentially void, large sections are needed; to facilitate identification, thin sections have to be used for light microscopy, and since such structures are anisotropic, the sections should be vertical. A practical stereological design is demonstrated here on an infant lung, which fulfils all these requirements.

This study illustrates the potential of using unbiased stereology to characterize infant pulmonary hypoplasia.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 9-24 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Journal of Microscopy |

Volume | 170 |

Publication status | Published - Apr 1993 |

## Keywords

- ARTERIES
- BRONCHI
- CAVALIERI ESTIMATOR
- COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
- CYCLOID TEST SYSTEM
- FLUID DISPLACEMENT
- IMAGE THRESHOLDING
- LUNG
- MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
- PLEURA
- RADIODENSITY
- SPATIAL GRID
- STEREOLOGY
- SURFACE AREA
- SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
- VERTICAL SECTIONS
- VOLUME
- SURFACE-AREA
- EFFICIENCY