On the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, the properties of free transverse vibration and buckling of a double-beam system tinder compressive axial loading are investigated in this paper. It is assumed that the two beams of the system are simply supported and continuously joined by a Winkler elastic layer. Explicit expressions are derived for the natural frequencies and the associated amplitude ratios of the two beams, and the analytical solution of the critical buckling load is obtained. The influences of the compressive axial loading on the responses of the double-beam system are discussed. It is shown that the critical buckling load of the system is related to the axial compression ratio of the two beams and the Winkler elastic layer, and the properties of free transverse vibration of the system greatly depend on the axial compressions.