Wearable super-resolution muscle–machine interfacing

Huxi Wang, Siming Zuo, María Cerezo-Sánchez, Negin Ghahremani Arekhloo, Kianoush Nazarpour, Hadi Heidari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Muscles are the actuators of all human actions, from daily work and life to communication and expression of emotions. Myography records the signals from muscle activities as an interface between machine hardware and human wetware, granting direct and natural control of our electronic peripherals. Regardless of the significant progression as of late, the conventional myographic sensors are still incapable of achieving the desired high-resolution and non-invasive recording. This paper presents a critical review of state-of-the-art wearable sensing technologies that measure deeper muscle activity with high spatial resolution, so-called super-resolution. This paper classifies these myographic sensors according to the different signal types (i.e., biomechanical, biochemical, and bioelectrical) they record during measuring muscle activity. By describing the characteristics and current developments with advantages and limitations of each myographic sensor, their capabilities are investigated as a super-resolution myography technique, including: (i) non-invasive and high-density designs of the sensing units and their vulnerability to interferences, (ii) limit-of-detection to register the activity of deep muscles. Finally, this paper concludes with new opportunities in this fast-growing super-resolution myography field and proposes promising future research directions. These advances will enable next-generation muscle-machine interfaces to meet the practical design needs in real-life for healthcare technologies, assistive/rehabilitation robotics, and human augmentation with extended reality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1020546
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • electrical impedance tomography
  • electromyography
  • forcemyography
  • human-computer interface
  • magnetomyography
  • muscle-machine interface
  • super-resolution
  • wearable sensors


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