Which variables may affect underwater glide performance after a swimming start?

Francisco Hermosilla, Inmaculada Yustres, Stelios Psycharakis, Jesús Santos Del Cerro, Fernando Gonzalez-Mohino, José María González-Ravé*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The underwater phase is perhaps the most important phase of the swimming start. To improve performance during the underwater phase, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the key variables affecting this phase. The main aim of this study was to identify key kinematic variables that are associated with the performance of an underwater glide of a swimming start, when performed at streamlined position without underwater undulatory swimming. Sixteen experienced swimmers performed 48 track starts and 20 kinematic variables were analysed. A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to explore the relationship between glide performance (defined as glide distance) and the variables that may affect glide performance. Four variables in the regression model were identified as good predictors of glide distance: flight distance; average velocity between 5m and 10m; and maximum depth of the hip. The results of the present study help improve our understanding of underwater glide optimisation and could potentially facilitate improvement of overall start performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1141–1148
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean journal of sport science
Issue number8
Early online date16 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • kick start
  • performance
  • biomechanics
  • glide efficiency


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