This study explored cultural similarities and differences in personal and social identity across four groups of children (Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese (BBC) and White Scottish in three age groups (ages 8, 11 and 14 years) (N=454). The ‘Who am I?’ self-description questionnaire was employed. The results revealed significant differences in children’s understanding of social self across the cultural groups. All cultural groups of children’s responses indicated that individual-self was the most common form of identity. However, the Chinese groups emphasized more collective-self responses than White Scottish children. Mainland Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese children’s perception of their individual-self increased across age groups. Study findings provided new insights into the developmental and cultural complexities in children’s identities.
- social identity, cross-cultural comparison, development