OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between whole and refined grain intake and risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer. Findings from case-control studies of whole and refined grain intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer have been inconclusive.
METHODS: The Iowa Women's Health Study is a prospective cohort study of women initially 55-69 years old that relates diet and other lifestyle factors to cancer risk. After exclusions a total of 29,119 menopausal women who answered a 1986 baseline and a 1989 follow-up questionnaire were followed for 9 years for incident breast cancer.
RESULTS: Compared to women who at baseline rarely ate whole grain foods, women who habitually ate whole grain had a healthier lifestyle, including a higher likelihood of prior screening mammography. The multivariate-adjusted risk of incident breast cancer was 20% higher in women in the highest quintile of whole grain intake, compared to women in the lowest quintile of whole grain intake (95% confidence interval 0.95-1.5; p-value for trend = 0.03). No increase in breast cancer risk was found in women who had not undergone screening mammography before 1989; the apparent increase in risk was therefore likely due to increased use of screening mammography. Refined grain intake was not associated with breast cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: Consistent with inverse but not statistically significant associations between whole grain intake and breast cancer in case-control studies, both whole and refined grain intakes are unrelated to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in these Iowa women.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Cancer Causes & Control|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2001|
- Breast Neoplasms
- Edible Grain
- Middle Aged
- Prospective Studies
- Risk Factors
- United States
- Women's Health
- Comparative Study
- Journal Article
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.