Edinburgh Research Explorer

Age of acquisition of 299 words in seven languages: American English, Czech, Gaelic, Lebanese Arabic, Malay, Persian and Western Armenian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Magdalena Łuniewska
  • Zofia Wodniecka
  • Carol A. Miller
  • Morna Butcher
  • Vasiliki Chondrogianni
  • Edith Kobe Hreich
  • Camille Messarra
  • Rogayah A Razak
  • Jeanine Treffers-Daller
  • Ngee Thai Yap
  • Layal Abboud
  • Ali Talebi
  • Maribel Gureghian
  • Laurice Tuller
  • Ewa Haman

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Open Access permissions



  • Download as Adobe PDF

    Final published version, 1 MB, PDF-document

    Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY)

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0220611
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number8
Early online date8 Aug 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Aug 2019


We present a new set of subjective Age of Acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in seven languages from various language families and cultural settings: American English (Indo-European: Germanic), Czech (Indo-European: Slavic), Gaelic (Indo-European: Celtic), Lebanese Arabic (Afroasiatic: Semitic), the Malay language (Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian) as used in Malaysia or specifically termed as Malaysian Malay (as compared to varieties of Malay used in Indonesia, Brunei or Singapore), Persian (Indo-European: Indo-Iranian), and Western Armenian (Indo-European: Armenian). The ratings were collected from a total of 152 participants from five countries and four continents, and were highly reliable in each language.

    Research areas

  • adult, female, human, human experiment, language, major clinical study, male, review

Download statistics

No data available

ID: 77109341