Edinburgh Research Explorer

Aluminium and fluoride in drinking water in relation to later dementia risk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Open Access permissions



  • Download as Adobe PDF

    Rights statement: This article has been published in a revised form in The British Journal of Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.287. This version is free to view and download for private research and study only. Not for re-distribution, re-sale or use in derivative works. ©The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2019

    Accepted author manuscript, 698 KB, PDF document

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe British Journal of Psychiatry
Early online date14 Mar 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Mar 2019


Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.


In the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia.

We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005–2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005.

A total of 1972 out of 6990 individuals developed dementia by the linkage date in 2012. Dementia risk was raised with increasing mean aluminium levels in women (hazard ratio per s.d. increase 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.15, P < 0.001) and men (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, P = 0.004). A dose-response pattern of association was observed between mean fluoride levels and dementia in women (1.34, 95% CI 1.28–1.41, P < 0.001) and men (1.30, 95% CI 1.22–1.39, P < 0.001), with dementia risk more than doubled in the highest quartile compared with the lowest. There was no statistical interaction between aluminium and fluoride levels in relation with dementia.


Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride were related to dementia risk in a population of men and women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both.

    Research areas

  • dementia, epidemiology, neuropathology

Download statistics

No data available

ID: 77873384