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Analysis of the Bacterial Response to Ru(CO) 3 Cl(Glycinate) (CORM-3) and the Inactivated Compound Identifies the Role Played by the Ruthenium Compound and Reveals Sulfur-Containing Species as a Major Target of CORM-3 Action .

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http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ars.2012.5103
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1999-2012
Number of pages14
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Volume19
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2013

Abstract

Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are being developed with the ultimate goal of safely utilizing the therapeutic potential of CO clinically. One such application is antimicrobial activity; therefore, we aimed to characterize and compare the effects of the CO-RM, CORM-3, and its inactivated counterpart, where all labile CO has been removed, at the transcriptomic and cellular level. Results: We found that both compounds are able to penetrate the cell, but the inactive form is not inhibitory to bacterial growth under conditions where CORM-3 is. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the bacterial response to inactivated CORM-3 (iCORM-3) is much lower than to the active compound and that a wide range of processes appear to be affected by CORM-3 and to a lesser extent iCORM-3, including energy metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and the metabolism of many sulfur-containing species, including cysteine and methionine. Innovation: This work has demonstrated that both CORM-3 and its inactivated counterpart react with cellular functions to yield a complex response at the transcriptomic level. A full understanding of the actions of both compounds is vital to understand the toxic effects of CO-RMs. Conclusion: This work has furthered our understanding of how CORM-3 behaves at the cellular level and identifies the responses that occur when the host is exposed to the Ru compound as well as those that result from the released CO. This is a vital step in laying the groundwork for future development of optimized CO-RMs for eventual use in antimicrobial therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1999–2012.

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