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Anti-Spoofing for Text-Independent Speaker Verification: An Initial Database, Comparison of Countermeasures, and Human Performance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)768 - 783
Number of pages17
Journal IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
Issue number4
Early online date8 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016


In this paper, we present a systematic study of the vulnerability of automatic speaker verification to a diverse range of spoofing attacks. We start with a thorough analysis of the spoofing effects of five speech synthesis and eight voice conversion systems, and the vulnerability of three speaker verification systems under those attacks. We then introduce a number of countermeasures to prevent spoofing attacks from both known and unknown attackers. Known attackers are spoofing systems whose output was used to train the countermeasures, whilst an unknown attacker is a spoofing system whose output was not available to the countermeasures during training. Finally, we benchmark automatic systems against human performance on both speaker verification and spoofing detection tasks.

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