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Assessment of biocompatibility of 3D printed photopolymers using zebrafish embryo toxicity assays

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  • N P Macdonald
  • F Zhu
  • C J Hall
  • J Reboud
  • P S Crosier
  • E E Patton
  • D Wlodkowic
  • J M Cooper

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-7
Number of pages7
JournalLab on a Chip
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2016


3D printing has emerged as a rapid and cost-efficient manufacturing technique to enable the fabrication of bespoke, complex prototypes. If the technology is to have a significant impact in biomedical applications, such as drug discovery and molecular diagnostics, the devices produced must be biologically compatible to enable their use with established reference assays and protocols. In this work we demonstrate that we can adapt the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as a new method to quantify the toxicity of 3D printed microfluidic devices. We assessed the biocompatibility of four commercially available 3D printing polymers (VisiJetCrystal EX200, Watershed 11122XC, Fototec SLA 7150 Clear and ABSplus P-430), through the observation of key developmental markers in the developing zebrafish embryos. Results show all of the photopolymers to be highly toxic to the embryos, resulting in fatality, although we do demonstrate that post-printing treatment of Fototec 7150 makes it suitable for zebrafish culture within the FET.

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