Edinburgh Research Explorer

Being an adult learner in Europe and the UK: Persisting inequalities and the role of the welfare state

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBeing an Adult Learner in Austere Times
Subtitle of host publicationExploring the Contexts of Higher, Further and Community Education
EditorsEllen Boeren, Nalita James
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9783319972084
ISBN (Print)9783319972077
Publication statusPublished - 2019


The European Commission’s aims in relation to education and training have been expressed by a set of benchmarks and indicators (Ioannidou in EERJ 6: 336–347, 2007; Grek in Journal of Education Policy 24: 23–37, 2009; Lawn and Grek in Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space. Symposium Books, Oxford, 2012; Holford and Mohorcic-Spolar in Lifelong Learning in Europe: Equity and Efficiency in the Balance, pp. 39–61, 2012). In relation to adult learning, it includes the benchmark that by 2020, 15% of the adult population between the ages of 25 and 64 needs to participate in at least one lifelong learning activity, measured on a four weeks basis (European Commission in Strategic Framework for Education and Training. European Commission, Brussels, 2009).

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